Posts Tagged ‘female boxing

05
Mar
14

Women Box … Wordless Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Women Box … Wordless Wednesday, March 5, 2014

women-boxingNothing but joy! Women’s Boxing 1890s

 

28
Feb
14

Friday Night At The Women’s Boxing Fights … February 28, 2014

Friday Night At The Women’s Boxing Fights … February 28, 2014

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La Barbie Juarez (l) in the ring against a tough Melissa McMorrow as they battled for the WBC Female Superflyweight International Title, February 22, 2014.

Up this week … two women’s boxing title bouts!

Co-Main Event:

Fernanda Alegre (18-1-1, 9-KOs) vs. Marisol Reyes (13-8-1, 6-KOs), WBO Female Light Welterweight Title held at the Club Atlético Huracán, Necochea, Buenos Aires, Argentina, on February 21, 2014.

Main Event:

WBC Champion Mariana “La Barbie” Juarez (39-7-3, 16-KOs) met WBO Flyweight Champion Melissa McMorrow (9-4-3, 1-KO) in a tough 10-round fight at the Gimnasio Miguel Hidalgo de la Angelopolis in Peubla, Mexico on February 22, 2014. They competed for the WBC Female Superflyweight International Title. There was a lot of contraversy associated with the decision so you be the judge! (Fight starts approximately 12:00 minutes in.)

26
Feb
14

Women Box … Wordless Wednesday, February 26, 2014

Women Box … Wordless Wednesday, February 26, 2014

hbox-gordons-1900s

The boxing Gordon Sisters, 1890s variety stage artists.

23
Feb
14

Last Woman Standing …

Last Woman Standing …

LAST WOMAN STANDING

First time documentary filmmakers Juliet Lammers & Lorraine Price have crafted an engaging film about two of Canada’s great national amateur boxing champions, Mary Spencer and Ariane Fortin, both of whom vied for a spot to represent Canada in the 2012 London Games in the 75 kg weight class.

From the opening frame of Last Woman Standing, the cheers of women’s boxing fans can be heard overlaying the film’s energetic score along with the images of the two feature fighters as they go about their hard training regimens.

The importance of the decision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in agreement with the International Boxing Association (AIBA) to limit female boxing to three weight classes in their debut games in 2012 (as distinct from the original request for five weigth classes), provides the tension in the film as the ramification of the decision begins to weigh on both women. (The three Olympic weight classes for women remain, Featherweight (51kg-112 lbs.), Lightweight (60kg-132 lbs), and Middleweight (75kg-165 lbs.).

Prior to the decision, Spencer and Fortin, boxed in different weight classes. They were also the closest of friends who cheered each other on to national and international titles. With the decision by the IOC, however, it meant that the only way for either of them to compete in the Olympics was to jump up in weight class to 75kg – and as Mary Spencer said, “We never could have imagined that it would come down to us fighting for one spot.”

wdr-620-spencer-fortin

Structured around the events that propelled both women into successive collisions in the ring, the film covers their experiences inside and outside the squared circle as they both fought hard to represent Canada in 2012. What the films depicts is their great courage, fortitude and a will to succeed at all odds — that unfortunately, put so much emphasis on winning a spot, that in Mary’s own estimation it left her thinking that gaining the coveted spot meant her fight had already been won leading to disappointment when she actually fought in her Olympic debut.

Given that women’s boxing in the 2016 Rio Games is still limited to three weight classes, the tremendous pressure that the female fighters undergo for just 36 coveted spots is almost too much to bear. The film also brings home the importance of the Olympics as the one great competition that truly legitimizes the sport for the public as well as the athletes themselves.

Juliet Lammers & Lorraine Price have crafted an elegant, sensitive portrayal of the struggles the two friends underwent in the run up to 2012 — as well as the continuing problems that plague female practitioners of the sport.  

Last Woman Standing had its premier in the United States at the Hot Springs Documentary film festival and was a featured entry at the Big Sky Documentary Film Festival in Montana in mid-February.  The film, an absolute must see, is now available for rental or purchase on multiple platforms including  iTunesAmazon.com instant video, and others. The film continues to screen at various times in Canada. The film’s distributer, Film Buff, is also arranging showings in New York City and Los Angeles.

What the documentary does best, is remind us just how fabulous women’s boxing truly is–and of the immense pride and dedication female boxers bring every time they put on the gloves.

For further information, please refer the Last Woman Standing Facebook page at the link:

LastWomanStandingDocumentary

19
Feb
14

Women Box … Wordless Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Women Box … Wordless Wednesday, February 19, 2014

shadow-boxers-lucia-rijker-film-poster-dvd-cover-world-champion-boxer-boxing-gloves-robe-ring-ropes-image

 Lucia Rijker, women’s boxing heroine! 

Shadow Boxers, feature-length documentary by Katya Bankowsky, 1999.

17
Feb
14

A day off …

A day off …

photo 1-2

A daily something, whether it’s work, going for a run, posting a blog piece or any of a myriad of things can bring a nice bit of order to the day–or act as a set of moments for oneself and oneself alone.

Even with that daily something, it is sometimes nice to have a day off!

Yesterday was just such a day for me–when somewhere late in the evening I realized I hadn’t blogged for the day. Yes, I could have rushed it, but the truth was–it was okay.

Sometimes that break is what we need to kick start something new.

Today, my actual day off from work (the President’s Day holiday), turned out to be a gift of another kind — one extra day at the gym.

I saw friends I rarely run into — and had another chance to box at a leisurely pace, this time going into the ring with boxing trainer, Darius Forde. With Lennox Blackmoore in my corner to coach me through it, I worked through all sorts of issues in the ring offensively and defensively — plus the different looks that Darius showed me.

The rounds on the heavy bag and upper cut bag afterwards were also something a little bit new as I worked through different boxing problems I experienced in the ring.

It got me to thinking that it’s what makes the best part of any day — working through a problem from a different angle. Rather like a piece of art — we get to enrich ourselves by creatively thinking through how best to make something work before moving along.

At any rate, as official day’s off go, it was pretty wonderful.

15
Feb
14

Back in the saddle …

Back in the saddle …

Gleason's Gym - Lennox Blackmoore

After my ring melt down last week, not to mention two snowstorms and my left wrist going all carpal tunnel on me, I didn’t necessarily have high hopes for my return to sparring this morning with Lennox Blackmoore. To be honest, I was dreading it during the middle of the week, but by yesterday, my Pollyanna attitude took over and I started to think that I had a line on how to get respectably pummeled rather than the usual total pummeling!

Getting to the gym a little early, I spent four rounds in front of the mirror working on my stance before heading over the slip rope to do exactly that … slip.

My strategy was to sit lower and use my abs more to propel my legs and to hold my body taut. It also meant that my movements were smaller and I could get my hands back faster to cover up!

By the time Len came, I was very warmed up with a good sweat and when we entered the ring I felt more in control, with tighter punches and at least s-o-m-e slipping. When it came to the dreaded right hook (yep, he was fighting me southpaw again), I still didn’t know how to handle it. By the third one I just said, “let’s stop for a minute,” and asked Len what I should do.

What he recommended was that I weave under the punch to the left and set myself up to throw a left uppercut followed by a left hook.

Talk about a wow! Who knew that old bob-and-weave actually worked as a strategy in the ring! We practiced it a few times, taking us all the way through the bell, and then went back to sparring.  Admittedly I got tagged several more times with his right, but at least I tried to weave under it–and in so doing even surprised him with a few sneaky shots of my own.

By the end of five rounds I was tired, but armed with my new (old) defense, went on the uppercut bag to practice the move some more. The challenge there was timing the bag to duck under and then come up into position to set up throwing the uppercut-hook combination. It took a while, but I actually started to get it, and then used the bag to bob-and-weave on both sides. I also worked out using my “tweaked” stance to the point where my abs actually started to ache a bit by the end of my fourth round on the bag.

Old dog, new tricks … maybe, maybe not, but I certainly felt better about things. Thinking about it as I pounded on the speed bag to close out my workout, I did at least feel as if I’d pushed things along, just enough to sense that maybe, one day, I’ll look in the mirror and actually see a boxer looking back at me!

14
Feb
14

Happy Valentine’s Day @ the Women’s Boxing Fights!

Happy Valentine’s Day @ the Women’s Boxing Fights!

Mako Yamada

Mako Yamada newest WBO Champion.                           Photo: Ulysses Sato and Aaron Jang

This was a big upset, Mako Yamada (7-0, 2-KOs) defeated defending title-holder Su-Yun Hong  (9-1, 5-KOs) for the WBO Female Minimum Weight championship fight! The bout was held on Sunday, February 9, 2014 in the city of Chuncheon, South Korea. Yamada, a 19-year-old from Fukuoka, Japan, won by split decision with a decided body attack in the early going, and came out on top with scores 97-93, 96-94 in her favor and 97-96 for Kong.  You be the judge!

Next up, the main event! The WBC Female Super Bantamweight women’s boxing champion, Alicia “Slick” Ashley (20-9-1, 2-KOs) in her WBC title defense against Zenny Sotomayor (10-5-2, 8-KOs). At age 46, Alicia Ashley is all the more remarkable for her longevity in the realm of professional boxing and for her extraordinary exploits in the ring over a professional career that began 15 years ago in 1999. In her fight against Sotomayor held in Las Pulgas, Tuijuan, Mexico, on October 23, 2013, Ashley won by TKO at 1:43 in the fifth round.

12
Feb
14

Women Box … Wordless Wednesday, February 12, 2014

Women Box … Wordless Wednesday, February 12, 2014

Women boxing http://www.vintag.es/2013/04/old-photos-of-women-boxing.html

Women in boxing gloves, 1890-early 1990s

09
Feb
14

2014 NY Daily News Golden Gloves …

2014 NY Daily News Golden Gloves …

gloves20s-3-web

Christina Cruz won her seventh consecutive Golden Gloves at the 2013 Finals. Credit: Bryan Pace/NY Daily News

The 87th annual New York Daily News Golden Gloves got underway a couple of weeks ago at B. B. Kings Blues Club. At last year’s Golden Gloves, USA Boxing National Champion Christina Cruz made history with her seventh consecutive Golden Gloves win–surpassing the previous record holder, David Viller.

This week marks Week Three — with two events planned. The full schedule of “fight nights” is as follows:

WEEK THREE

Thursday, February 13
PLATTDUETSCH RESTAURANT – RING 8
1132 Hempstead Turnpike, Franklin Square, NY 11010

Saturday, February 15
ST. PATRICK’S HIGH SCHOOL
401 97th Street, Brooklyn, NY 11209

WEEK FOUR

Wednesday, February 19
POPS GYM
3134 Jerome Avenue, Bronx, NY 10468

Thursday, February 20
NY ATHLETIC CLUB
180 Central Park South, New York, NY 10019

Friday, February, 21
HOLYCROSS HIGH SCHOOL
26-20 Francis Lewis Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11358

WEEK FIVE

Tuesday, February 25
PAC PLEX CENTER
1500 Paerdegat Avenue N, Brooklyn, NY 11236

Wednesday, February 26
CLUB AMAZURA
91-12 144th Place, Jamaica, NY 11435

Thursday, February 27
TOTTENVILE HIGH SCHOOL
100 Luten Avenue, Staten Island, NY 10312

Friday, February 28
ST. RAYMOND’S HIGH SCHOOL
2151 St. Raymond Avenue, Bronx, NY 10462

Saturday, March 1 (4:00 PM)
XAVERIAN HIGH SCHOOL
7100 Shore Road, Brooklyn, NY 11209

WEEK SIX

Wednesday, March 5
WILLIS AVE BC
401 E. 141st Street, Bronx, NY 10454

Thursday, March 6
ST. PATRICK’S HIGH SCHOOL
401 97th Street, Brooklyn, NY 11209

Friday, March 7
HOLY CROSS HIGH SCHOOL
26-20 Francis Lewis Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11358

WEEK SEVEN

Wednesday, March 12
ST. BERNARD’S CHURCH
2030 E. 69th Street, Brooklyn, NY 11234

Thursday, March 13
JUDAH BROS AT PAC PLEX CENTER
1500 Paerdegat Avenue N, Brooklyn, NY 11236

Friday, March 14
PETRIDES HIGH SCHOOL – ATLAS FOUNDATION
715 Ocean Terrace, Staten Island, NY 10301

WEEK EIGHT

Wednesday, March 19
BISHOP FORD HIGH SCHOOL
500 19th Street, Brooklyn, NY 11215

Thursday, March 20
VARIETY BOYS & GIRLS CLUB
21-12 30th Road, Long Island City, NY 11102

Friday, March 21
ST. ATHANASIUS CHURCH
6120 Bay Parkway, Brooklyn, NY 11204

WEEK NINE

Monday, March 24
ST. FINBAR AUDITORIUM
1839 Bath Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11214

Tuesday, March 25
OUR LADY OF MOUNT CARMEL
275 N. 8th Street, Brooklyn, NY 11211

Wednesday, March 26
NAZARETH HIGH SCHOOL
475 E. 57th Street, Brooklyn, NY 11203

Thursday, March 27 (7:45 PM)
GLEN COVE HIGH SCHOOL
150 Dosoris Lane, Glen Cove, NY 11542

Friday, March 28
ELECTCHESTER HALL
158-11 Jewel Avenue, Flushing, NY 11365

Saturday, March 29 (2:00 PM)
SUFFOLK PAL
99 3rd Avenue, Brentwood, NY 11717

WEEK TEN

Monday, March 31
CHIAM FOUNDATION
4401 Broadway, Astoria, NY 11104

Tuesday, April 1
POPS GYM
3134 Jerome Avenue, Bronx, NY 10468

Wednesday, April 2
EMPIRE CITY CASINO
810 Yonkers Avenue, Yonkers, NY 10704

Friday, April 4
AVIATOR SPORTS RECREATION
FLOYD BENNET FIELD
3159 Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11234

FINALS

Wednesday, April 16
Barclays Center
620 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn 11217

Thursday, April 17
Barclays Center
620 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn 11217

Read more: http://www.nydailynews.com/services/2014-golden-gloves-schedule-article-1.1588038#ixzz2ssyKAFvK

07
Feb
14

Friday night at the women’s boxing fights – 2/7/2014

Friday night at the women’s boxing fights – 2/7/2014

Friday Night Fights

Here we are again fight fans! And if Chicago-based new boxing sensation and 6-time Golden Gloves champ Kristen Gearhart (2-0) who is fighting Alliana Jones (1-0) on the ESPN Friday Night Fights card doesn’t get on the air — female boxers will still find themselves shut out of the major US TV networks this weekend.

As alternative …. we have tonight’s fight card with two sensational fights from this past week!

First up is Canadian fighter Lindsay Garbett (8-7-s, 3-KOs) vs. Chinese fighter Xu Chun Yan (4-3, 1-KO) who fought for the vacant WBC International Female Featherweight championship in Haikou, China on February 5, 2014. Garbett lost the battle by majority decision and according to CanadianBoxiana.com told her fans, “Unfortunately I lost a majority decision. I left it all out there and I knew what I had to do. Couldn’t get it done this time. I Had a great time and can’t wait to come home! Thanks again everyone for all the support. I’m so grateful!”

Both are very skilled boxers–and the audience was very attentive. You be the judge! (BTW, Commentary is in Mandarin)

For the main event, here is the complete Cecilia Braekhus (24-0, 7 KOs) vs. Myriam Lamare (22-4, 10-KOs) fight for the WBA, WBC and WBO female welterweight championship held on 2/1/2014. Braekhus took the fight by unanimous decision on points.

Lamare had her pro debut in 2003 and has fought Jane Couch, Belinda Laracuente, Anne Sophie Mathis, Holly Holm, Ann Saccurato and Chevelle Hallback along the way among others. Her only losses other than to Braekhus, had been against Holm and Mathis (twice). Lamare also fought as an amateur

Braekhus, listed as number 1 on everyone’s p-4-p list seems unstoppable with mad, crazy skills and an iron will to win, but let me tell you, Lamare’s no slouch either. The fight, likely Lamare’s last, is all Braekhus, but still a pleasure to watch–with a very lively crowd! (Commentary in Norwegian)

 

06
Feb
14

Emma Chambers Maitland, African-American Female Boxer in the 1920s and 1930s!

Emma Chambers Maitland, African-American Female Boxer in the 1920s and 1930s!

emma_maitland_boxing

Emma Maitland Chambers v. Aurelia Wheeldin, April 26, 1934, NY Golden Gloves. Credit: Vineyard Gazette

Emma Chambers Maitland was a female boxer in the 1920s and 1930s who graced the stage with her boxing act in the United States and France. Born in 1893 in Virginia where here parents were tobacco farmers.  She was fiercely independent and more than anything wanted to be a teacher. She eventually earned a license and made her way to Washington DC were she met and married Clarence Maitland who was studying at Howard University to be a doctor.

What had seemed the beginning of an ideal life, however, fell apart when her new husband died of tuberculosis. By then she had a small child.  Seeking out something better–and after setting up her daughter at her parents home–Emma Maitland made her way to Paris where she became a dancer and eventually, a boxer, training with former heavyweight Jack Taylor, known as the Nebraska Tornado.

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Emma Chambers Maitland and Aurelia Wheeldin, “Tea For Two Girls”, Credit, Cathy Van Ingen

Maitland along with another African-American boxer named Aurelia Wheeldin, appeared at the Moulin Rouge in Paris in a famous dance review called the “Tea for Two.” They went on to perform in a show of their own called the “Tea for Two Girls” that added in three rounds of boxing–which went on to tour the continent.

Back in the United States, Maitland acted as well as danced and also continued to perform with Wheeldin where they had the reputation of “putting on a real fight.” Maitland was also said to have fought competitively outside of the boxing act with female fighters up from Cuba and Mexico. As with female boxing acts in the past both Maitland and Wheeldin billed themselves as champion boxers.

Wheeldin eventually retired from the stage in 1940, but Maitland continued for a while, also picking up work as a “lady wrestler.” She eventually left the stage and began teaching dance and gymnastics before she became a nurse, eventually moving up to Martha’s Vineyard. She passed away at the age of 82, and has since been honored there as part of the African-American Heritage Trail.

HarlemLibrary.EmmaMaitland.Dec111943.TheAfroAmerican.page.23.google.

Female Boxer and Entertainer, Emma Maitland Donates Photographs and Clippings to the Harlem Library, The Afro American, December 11, 1943, Page 23, Credit: Google News Archive

For further information on these remarkable women, please click on the links.

Emma Maitland, Boxing Her Way to Equality and Justice, Elaine Weintraub, Vineyard Gazette.

“Seeing What Frames Our Seeing”: Seeking Histories on Early Black Female Boxers, Cathy Van Ingen, Academia.edu

05
Feb
14

Women Box … Wordless Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Women Box … Wordless Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Image 8.Texas Mamie Donavan

Texas Mamie Donavan (or Dunaman), Champion Female Boxer, 1905.

She was known to have boxed from 1905-1910 in Philadelphia and New York.

04
Feb
14

Preparing for crazy … weather wise!

Preparing for crazy … weather wise!

Winter Weather Alert

Fitting in gym visits, long runs through the park, making it to your yoga class or a lunchtime walk gets to be a real challenge when inclement weather threatens. Given that NYC is under yet another winter storm warning, I found myself rearranging my schedule to fit in a boxing workout at Gleason’s Gym this evening after work, just to make certain that I got at least one in this week.

What with 8 inches of snow yesterday, and another miserable day set for tomorrow, taking advantage of relative lulls in extremes of temperature or precipitation aka snow, ice, sleet and slush, not to mention temperatures in the single digits, means having to be flexible when it comes to keeping to a regular workout regimen.

gleasons_gym.jpg?w=655If Gleason’s was any indication–there were definitely a LOT fewer people training, nice for me because it meant I had the luxury of pounding my new favorite gym apparatus, the upper cut bag for eight leisurely rounds without feeling that I should give it up to another boxer.

Those who were working out though, seemed to be were putting a lot of extra time in too, as if knowing that with a winter storm on the way, it was a good idea to get in some licks because it might otherwise be awhile.

When the weather does hit and its either too cold, too slushy — or still coming down in a big way, you can certainly give in to one’s couch potato proclivities  (like me lately), or find another way.

One thing I’ve always had luck with are the videos I find on YouTube. For several months I was doing 30-45 minutes of Yoga every morning rotating through three or four of them, depending on my energy level, plus there are fun ones for ab workouts, shadowboxing, and of course, there’s always dancing!

I really like JT Van … and he’s designed a sweet, heart-pounding 20-minute boxing workout you can do at home with no equipment needed.

This is a decent 30 minute Vinyasa style Yoga practice — with sun salutations. Not for rank beginners, but not too complex either.

Ten minute Abs with LOTS of exercises! Nice and intense.

For a change-up — here’s nice “Salsa fitness” workout, with actual salsa music.

03
Feb
14

Women’s Wrestling in the 1950s …

Women’s Wrestling in the 1950s …

1953 Wrestling Poster

Wrestling stars such as Mary “The Fabulous Moolah” Ellison, June Byers, Millie Stafford, Mildred Burke, Ella Waldek, Mae Young and former boxer Bonnie Bartlett were wrestling stalwarts in the later 1940s and on through 1950s. A strong sponsoring group, the National Wrestling Association (NWA) offered a system of championship belts that helped these fighters along. Wrestling also enjoyed a network of wrestling promoters that kept the sport in the spotlight—some of whom also promoted boxing and vice versus, as well as small regional and local promoters who ran fight nights. Such publications as Boxing and Wrestling magazine also published weekly “Gal Grappler Ratings” and along with the NWA Official Wrestling magazine, and Boxing-Illustrated Boxing and Wrestling, published articles about female practitioners of both sports including such notables as South Bend, Indiana boxer Phyllis Kugler.

Art female wrestlers 1950's http://soberinthecauldron.blogspot.com/2011/10/vault.html

Art female wrestlers 1950′s. Photo Credit:soberinthecauldron.blogspot.com

The public’s appetite for professional wrestling was enormous and had been gaining since the 1930s. The price of admission was cheap. The post-war years, however, saw a tremendous gain with new and innovative tricks and flourishes in the ring including tag-team wrestling (featuring pairs of wrestlers, with one of each pair on the apron and the other partner fighting each other in the ring), mix-gender wrestling (featuring large women and small men), exaggerated movements giving rise to abject clowning and grandiose body slams, and costuming and masks. This emphasis on entertainment developed to compete for the shrinking pool of dollars available against the rise of the movie going culture—and as the 1950s wore on, against television.

The presence of bathing-suit clad women, some in two-piece outfits only seemed to enhance the circus-like atmosphere of the wrestling ring and certainly pushed the boundaries of women’s participation in combat sports in general. While women as well as men participated in the system that dictated who would win and who would lose on any given card, the physical prowess and skill necessary to put on a wrestling show was enormous. The risks were also great and led to the death of an 18-year-old wrestler named Janet Boyer Wolfe on July 28, 1951 at a tag-team wrestling benefit held in honor of the Shrine Club in Easter Liverpool, Ohio.

In this period, wrestling shows often featured fighters participating in more than one bout on a card. On the evening of her death, Wolfe had fought a bout against Ella Waldek, a wrestler renowned for her technical skills. After losing the match, Wolfe apparently complained of a mind-numbing headache, but insisted on coming out for the second match—a tag-team bout. Wolfe was partnered with wrestling star Eva Lee to fight against Waldek and another well-known fighter, Mae Young.

At the start of the match Wolfe was in the ring against Young, but after a short period of time she caught her teammate Lee’s attention and tagged out. Standing on the lip outside the ring, Wolfe held onto the ropes and then visibly collapsed onto the edge, startling the crowd, before sliding down onto the ground. By the time the doctor came to her side she had already lost consciousness—and though taken to the hospital quickly, she died in the early morning hours having slipped into a coma. An autopsy revealed a subdural hematoma, as well as a rupture in her stomach. Much attention was paid to Waldek who had body slammed Wolfe in the first match—and all three women who fought in the tag-team match were initially held for possible manslaughter charges. Much later, it came out that Wolfe had been complaining about headaches for weeks, but they were never attended to. Despite this, the fans felt that it was all Waldek’s fault and she bore the moniker of “murderer” for the rest of her career as a wrestler.

A recent documentary entitled Lipstick and Dynamite provides a wonderful portrait of these early pioneers of the wrestling ring. Their presence in the ring also helped pave the way for female boxers across the country–and also provided opportunities to compete to such early boxing luminaries as Barbara Buttrick and JoAnn Hagen. The Fabulous Moolah also helped promote female wrestler/boxers during the first big wave of female boxing in the 1970s.


Sources

Jeff Leen. Queen of the Ring: Sex, Muscles, Diamonds and the Making of an American Legend. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. 2009. Page 164.




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